• M. Kangur Tallinn University


greenwashing, sustainability, environmental health


Background: As the ecological challenges develop and deepen, the environmental change topics have become increasingly more relevant to people. Several studies have shown that the Millennials and generations after that have significantly changed understanding of economy, work life and personal values. Economical models that restore ecosystems, fair trade and socially responsible entrepreneurship are growing trends and this is not a choice anymore, but a strategic necessity. However, in the case of these developments, one must be aware of the malpractices and we must talk about greenwashing

Aim: Greenwashing is presentation of one’s environmentally harmful actions as positive ones. In the case of greenwashing, it can be seen as  three different categories.  The aim is to stop and prevent greenwashing happen.

Methods: Data analysis

Results: Firstly, the greenwashing can occur out of unawareness. We have many examples from the history where some technologies, such as using pesticides in the agriculture, have been perceived as unharmful due to the lack of knowledge. As the knowledge develops, the behaviour has been corrected. The second category is claiming to the clients that the product is environmentally friendly when in fact it does not differ from the other similar products, but no direct harm to the environment is done. The third category is the foulest way of misleading – it occurs when the provider of the product or service claims that it is environmentally friendly but is very well aware that it is actually harmful to the environment.

Conclusion(s): It is necessary for the consumers, regulators and legislators to take different steps to prevent the greenwashing from happening.


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