EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BEE POLLEN EXTRACT
Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), bacterial resistance to antibiotics poses a major threat worldwide and hinders the treatment of infectious diseases (World Health Organization, 2020), with an estimated 70 percent bacteria that cause infectious diseases in hospitals are resistant to at least one of the antibiotics used to treat infections. This situation has led to the search for natural antimicrobials. Branch, etc. (2017) found that bee pollen extract has antimicrobial activity against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and Candida genes human pathogens.
Aim: Determine the antimicrobial activity of different quantities of bee pollen.
Methods: The antimicrobial activity of bee pollen collected from five Lithuanian farms against reference bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae PCC, ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778) and cultures of the fungus Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Bee pollen was extracted into 96% ethanol (5 g of bee pollen in 20 ml of ethanol) for 14 days. The antimicrobial activity of the bee pollen extract was determined on Mueller-Hinton II Agar (BBL, Cockeysville, USA). 0.1 ml, 0.25 ml, 0.5 ml, 0.75 ml or 1 ml of the prepared bee pollen extract was added to Petri dishes containing 15 ml of Mueller-Hinton agar.
Results: Bee pollen extract 0.06 ml/1 ml agar had antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans. As the amount of bee pollen extract decreased, the antimicrobial activity of 1 ml of agar decreased. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus were antimicrobial against 0.03 ml/1 ml agar of bee pollen extract. Bee pollen extract at an amount of 0.006 ml/1 ml agar had antimicrobial activity only against Bacillus cereus.
Conclusion(s): The bee pollen extract was treated with all test bacterial and fungal reference cultures at 0.06 ml/1 ml agar. As its concentration on agar decreased, its antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms decreased.
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