Historical Perspectives and Legal Aspects of Cyber Warfare


  • Zoran Jovanovski Military academy Gen."Mihailo Apostolski", Skopje, R.N.Macedonia
  • Andrej Iliev Military academy "Gen. Mihailo Apostolski", Skopje, R.Macedonia
  • Anita Ilieva Nikolovska Lexicographic Centre, Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, R. N. Macedonia




historical development, perspectives, cyber warfare, national strategies, legal concepts


Historical development of cyber warfare follows three major historical periods: first period follows the technological advances of information technology during the 1980s until the end of the Cold War in 1990, second period is from the end of the Cold War to the terrorist attacks in United States during 11-th september 2001 year and the third period  is from the terrorist attacks in United States during 11-th september 2001 year onwards. Each of the mentioned historical periods follows a specific doctrine and strategy of dealing with the national security threats from cyberspace. The world super powers and the world states, introduce appropriate strategies and national policies to deal with the consequences of this kind of warfare. Expression of cyberspace is linked to a short story titled "Burning Chrome" in the 1982 year written by American author William Gibson. In the following years, this word turned out to be conspicuously related to online PC systems. According to NATO, people are part of cyberspace.  According to this, NATO defines that cyberspace is more than just internet, including not only hardware, software and information systems, but also peoples and social interaction with these networks. The first cyber warfare weapon ever known in history was Stuxnet. Stuxnet's objective was to physically annihilate a military target. Stuxnet has contaminated more than 60,000 PCs around the world, mostly in Iran. While international cooperation is essential, each nation should in near future develop a National foundation, its own national cyber security strategy, authorities and capabilities. Every nation state, should  require effective coordination and cooperation among governmental entities at the national and sub-national levels as well as the private sector and civil society. The main hypothesis of this paper is to present the historical development and perspectives of cyber warfare and accordingly propose the best legal concepts, national doctrines and strategies for dealing with this modern type of warfare.


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How to Cite

Jovanovski, Z., Iliev, A., & Ilieva Nikolovska, A. (2020). Historical Perspectives and Legal Aspects of Cyber Warfare. Annals of Disaster Risk Sciences, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.51381/adrs.v3i2.53