Seismic-risk Mitigation for Brittle Museum Exhibits: Zagreb Experiences and Perspectives
A strong ML5.5 earthquake, that struck Zagreb in March 2020 caused significant damage to many buildings in the city centre and several museums had to be temporarily closed or relocated. However, what is sometimes being overlooked, are the many valuable museum collections that were severely damaged or irreparably destroyed due to the excessive seismic vibrations. Mainly due to a lack of financial resources and inadequate spatial conditions and capacities, even the most valuable and unique artifacts in Croatian museums are often insufficiently seismically protected. The paper addresses seismic risk mitigation for sculptures and other brittle artworks that are particularly sensitive to strong seismic accelerations. In contrast to the traditional rigid securing of protected objects, a novel technique, namely base isolation, benefits from their partially unrestrained sliding movement, which accommodates the ground vibrations. Although it has proven effective for many valuable sculptures around the world, it is however, extremely costly and mostly out of reach of the limited financial resources of the Croatian cultural sector. The experiences of the Zagreb museums and the implemented protection mechanisms before and after the March 2020 earthquake are being examined, with the aim of discussing feasible solutions that suit local means and circumstances.
Atalić, J., Uroš, M., Šavor Novak, M., Demšić, M. and Nastev, M. (2021). The Mw5.4 Zagreb (Croatia) earthquake of March 22, 2020: impacts and response. Bull Earthquake Eng 19, 3461–3489 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-021-01117-w
Berto, L., Favaretto, T. and Saetta, A. (2013). Seismic risk mitigation technique for art objects: Experimental evaluation and numerical modelling of double concave curved surface sliders. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. 11. 10.1007/s10518-013-9441-8.
Cigada A., Sabbioni E., Siami A. and Zappa E. (2016). Modeling and Testing of the Anti-Vibration Base for Michelangelo’s Pietà Rondanini. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series - Special Topics in Structural Dynamics, 6, p. 11.21.
De Canio, G. (2012). Marble devices for the Base isolation of the two Bronzes of Riace: a proposal for the David of Michelangelo. 15 World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisboa, 10.13140/2.1.2483.9047.
Feilden, B. M. (1987). Between two Earthquakes: Cultural Property in Seismic Zones. Getty Conservation Institute; 1st edition. 108 pages. ISBN-10: 089236128X, ISBN-13: 978-0892361281
Government of Croatia (2020). Croatia Earthquake - Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment. Government of the Republic of Croatia, June 2020, p.15 https://mpgi.gov.hr/UserDocsImages/dokumenti/Potres/RDNA_web_04082020.pdf
Herak, M., Allegretti, I., Herak, D., Ivančić, I., Kuk, K., Marić, K., Markušić, S. and Sović, I. (2011). Seismic hazard maps of Croatia. Geophysical Challenges of the 21st Century. Zagreb, Croatia, 2011, 43-43 (poster)
Herak, M., Allegretti, I., Herak, D., Ivančić, I., Kuk, K., Marić, K., Markušić, S. and Sović, I. (2021). Karte potresnih područja Hrvatske. Geofizički odsjek, Prirodoslovno -matematički fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Retrieved Sept 2021 from http://seizkarta.gfz.hr/hazmap/karta.php
HRN EN 1998-1:2011 (2011). Eurorcode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings (EN 1998-1:2002+AC:2009), Croatian normative document.
Hrvatski prirodoslovni muzej. (2021). Čuvar baštine kao katalizator razvoja, istraživanja i učenja – novi Hrvatski prirodoslovni muzej. EU project KK.06.1.1.06.0001 (15.1.2021.- 15.10.2023.) http://www.hpm.hr/hr/Muzej/Dokumenti
Marić, I., Rihtar Jurić, T. and Vranešević, D. (2019). (Ne)spremnost zagrebačkih muzeja na krizne situacije, Lecture at professional conference Zaštita kulturne baštine Grada Zagreba u kriznim uvjetima. Muzejski dokumentacijski centar, Dec 13, 2019. [Muzeologija 58 (2021), 12 – 43]
Markušić, S., Stanko, D., Korbar, T., Belić, N., Penava, D. and Kordić, B. (2020). The Zagreb (Croatia) M5.5 Earthquake on 22 March 2020. Geosciences 2020, 10, 252. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10070252
McGivern and H., Lombardi, M. (2017). Florence acts to ensure Michelangelo's David remains sure-footed after recent earthquakes. The Arts Newspaper https://www.theartnewspaper.com/2017/01/03/florence-acts-to-ensure-michelangelos-david-remains-sure-footed-after-recent-earthquakes
Ning, X., Dai, J., Bai, W., Yang, Y. and Zhang, L. (2018). Seismic Protection of Cabinet Stored Cultural Relics with Silicone Dampers. Hindawi Shock and Vibration,Volume 2018, Article ID 3501848, 15 pages. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3501848
Podany, J. (2016). Contents fragile! Earthquake damage mitigation for museum collections and the role of science academies in advancing this effort. International conference Florence 1966-2016 resilience of art cities to natural catastrophes: the role of academies (Roma, Oct 11-13 2016), 165.
Podany, J. (2017). When Galleries Shake: Earthquake Damage Mitigation for Museum Collections, J. Paul Getty Museum; 1st edition (Oct 17, 2017)
Podany, J. (2020). Earthquake-Damage Mitigation for Museum Collections: Basic Concepts and Approaches. APT Bulletin: The Journal of Preservation Technology, 51(4), 27-36. Retrieved May 14, 2021, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/26970190
Podgorski, J. (2021). Spašavanje umjetnina u Muzeju za umjetnost i obrt nakon zagrebačkog potresa. Lecture at Muzej za umjetnost i obrt (Zagreb, Feb 17, 2021) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kWifZQjZM4
Rihtar Jurić, T., Validžija, I. and Vranešević, D. (2020). MDC-ovo istraživanje – zagrebački muzeji pola godine nakon potresa. Newsletter, 124, 22.9.2020. Retrieved from https://mdc.hr/hr/mdc/publikacije/newsletter/newsletter-22-9-2020
Sonda, D., Cigada, A., Zappa, E. and Cossu, M. (2017). Seismic and vibration protection of the statue "Pieta' Rondanini" By Michelangelo. 16 World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017 Paper N° 4009
Venanzi, I., Ierimonti, L. and Materazzi, A. L. (2017). Active control of art objects subjected to seismic excitation. Procedia Engineering 199:1816-1821 (conference paper). X International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2017, 5 pages, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.09.096
Vujić, Ž. and Stublić, H. (2018). Tema muzejske čuvaonice: reprezentant zanimanja profesora Ive Maroevića i dalje je naš najveći muzejski problem. Muzeologija (55), 7-30. Retrieved from https://hrcak.srce.hr/220796