Quantum Computers - An Emerging Cybersecurity Threat
Quantum computational supremacy may potentially endanger the current cryptographic protection methods. Although quantum computers are still far from a practical implementation in information processing and storage, they should not be overlooked in the context of cybersecurity. Quantum computers operate with qubits - units of information that are governed by the fundamental principles of quantum physics, such as quantum superposition of states and quantum coherence. In order to address the new challenge that quantum computers pose to cybersecurity, the very principles of their operation have to be understood and are overviewed in this contribution.
Arute, F. et al. (2019). Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor. Nature 574, 505–510.
Boudot, F. et al. (2020). https://listserv.nodak.edu/cgi-bin/wa.exe?A2=NMBRTHRY;dc42ccd1.2002
Coles,P.J. et al. (2018). Quantum Algorithm Implementations for Beginners. arXiv:1804.03719.
Di Franco, F. (2018). Analysis of the European R&D priorities in cybersecurity. European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA). ISBN: 978-92-9204-278-3. Retrieved from https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/analysis-of-the-european-r-d-priorities-in-cybersecurity
ETSI. (2020) ETSI. Technologies. Quantum-safe cryptography. Retrieved from https://www.etsi.org/technologies/quantum-safe-cryptography
Feynman, R.P. (1982). Simulating physics with computers. International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 21, 6/7, 467 – 488.
Grover, L.K. (1996). A fast quantum mechanical algorithm for database search. Proceedings 28th Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing. 212-219.
Horodecki R. et al. (2009). Quantum entanglement. Rev. Mod. Phys. 81 (2). 865–942.
HSD Report. (2019). Understanding the Strategic and Technical Significance of Technology for Security. Implications of Quantum Computing within the Cybersecurity Domain. The Hague Security Delta (HSD). Retrieved from https://www.thehaguesecuritydelta.com/media/com_hsd/report/257/document/HSD-Rapport-Quantum.pdf
Lidar, D.A., Brun, T.A.(Eds.). (2013). Quantum Error Correction. Cambridge University. Press.
Nielsen, M.A., Chuang, I.L. (2010). Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. 10th Anniversary Edition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-00217-3.
OQS. (2016). Open Quantum Safe - software for prototyping quantum-resistant cryptography. Retrieved from https://openquantumsafe.org/
Paler, A., Devitt, S.J. (2015). An introduction to Fault-tolerant Quantum Computing. Cornell University. arXiv:1508.03695 [quant-ph]
Pednault, E. et al. (2019). Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.09534
QExperience. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.ibm.com/quantum-computing/technology/experience/
Rivest, R.; Shamir, A.; Adleman, L. (1978). A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems. Communications of the ACM. 21 (2). 120–126.
Schlosshauer, M. (2019). Quantum decoherence. Physics Reports, 831. 1- 57.
Schreier, J.A. et al. (2008). Suppressing charge noise decoherence in superconducting charge qubits. Phys. Rev. B 77. 180502
Shor, P.W. (1997). Polynomial-Time Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer. SIAM J. Comput., 26 (5). 1484–1509.
Stebila, D. (2015). Quantum safe cryptography and security: An introduction, benefits, enablers and challengers. ETSI White Paper No 8. Retrieved from https://www.douglas.stebila.ca/research/papers/ETSI-Whitepaper15/
Wootters, W. and Zurek, W. (1982). A Single Quantum Cannot be Cloned. Nature. 299 (5886): 802–803. Bibcode:1982Natur.299..802W